**Heating value of natural gas** = Sum [ (x_{1}) (HV_{1}) + (x_{2}) (HV_{2}) + (x_{3}) (HV_{3}) + … ]

**Where:** HV_{n} = heating value of gas component n, in BTU/SCF

x_{n} = mole or volume fraction of gas component n. The table below contains the list of individual component LHV & HHV.

**Definitions: **

**Heating Value: **The heating value of any fuel is the energy released per unit mass or per unit volume of the fuel when the fuel is completely burned (ANSI/ASABE S593.1 2011). The heat of combustion for fuels is expressed as the HHV, LHV, or GHV.

The term calorific value is synonymous to the heating value. Typical units for expressing calorific or heating value are MJ/kg & MJ/m3 in SI units or Btu/lb & BTU/SCF in English units. The heating value of a fuel depends on the assumption made on the condition of water molecules in the final combustion products.

**The higher heating value ( HHV)** refers to a condition in which the water is condensed out of the combustion products. The higher heating value includes the sensible heat and latent heat of vaporization especially for water. In other words, HHV assumes all the water component is in liquid state at the end of combustion

**The lower heating value ( LHV),** on the other hand refers to the condition in which water in the final combustion products remains as vapor (or steam); i.e. the steam is not condensed into liquid water and thus the latent heat is not accounted for. The LHV assumes that the latent heat of vaporization of water in the fuel and the reaction products is not recovered.

The term net heating value (*NHV*), net calorific value (NCV) or lower calorific value (LCV) refers to *LHV.*

The term gross heating value (*GHV*) or higher calorific value (HCV) refers to *HHV*.

**Gross heating value:**Gross heating value accounts for water in the exhaust leaving as vapor, and includes liquid water in the fuel prior to combustion. This value is important for fuels like wood or coal, which will usually contain some amount of water prior to burning.

LHV |
HHV |
|||

S.G. |
Btu/sft |
Btu/sft |
||

Component |
Formula |
MW |
Btu/lb |
Btu/lb |

Nitrogen |
N |
28.01 |
0 |
0 |

Carbon Dioxide |
CO |
44.01 |
0 |
0 |

Hydrogen Sulfide |
H |
34.08 |
587 |
637 |

Methane |
CH |
16.04 |
909 |
1010 |

Ethane |
C |
30.07 |
1619 |
1770 |

Propane |
C |
44.10 |
2315 |
2516 |

I-Butane |
C |
58.12 |
3000 |
3252 |

n-Butane |
C |
58.12 |
3011 |
3262 |

I-Pentane |
C |
72.15 |
3699 |
4001 |

n-Pentane |
C |
72.15 |
3704 |
4009 |

n-Hexane |
C |
86.18 |
4404 |
4756 |

n-Heptane |
C |
100.20 |
5100 |
5503 |

n-Octane |
C |
114.23 |
5796 |
6249 |

n-Nonane |
C |
128.26 |
6494 |
6997 |

n- Decane |
C |
142.29 |
7190 |
7743 |

Oxygen |
O |
32.00 |
0 |
0 |

Hydrogen |
H |
2.02 |
274 |
324 |

Helium |
H |
4.00 |
0 |
0 |

Water |
H |
18.02 |
0 |
50 |

Carbon Monoxide |
CO |
28.01 |
321 |
321 |

Ethylene |
C |
28.05 |
1499 |
1600 |

Propylene |
C |
42.08 |
2182 |
2333 |

Butylene |
C |
56.11 |
2876 |
3077 |

Benzene |
C |
78.11 |
3591 |
3742 |

Argon |
Ar |
39.95 |
0 |
0 |

Ammonia |
NH |
17.03 |
0 |
0 |

Air |
Air |
28.97 |
0 |
0 |

How can I get the HHV amp; LHV heating value in Aspen Hysys in BTU/scf or BTU/ft3?

Currently the default units in Aspen HYSYS for the higher and lower heating properties do not include BTU/ft3. To use these units you must create a user unit conversion, as described in the steps below:

1. Select the Preferences command in the Tools menu.

2. Select the Variables tab.

3. Select any one of the three default unit sets and click the Clone button.

4. From the list of Display Units scroll down until you find Volume Specific Energy and click on the corresponding units.

5. Click the Add button.

6. In the User Conversion window provide the name for your user unit and specify a conversion rate of 26.85 * MJ/m3.

Note that the volume is specified at standard conditions. For Metric these are 1 atm and 15°C; for Imperial these are 1 atm and 60°F.

What is the difference between the lower heating value LHV and the High Heating Value HHV?

The main difference is in the water content (latent heat of vaporization). HHV assumes that no water will vaporize and therefore no heat will be consumed to heat and vaporize the water in the gas. LHV will assume that water will vaporize.

This is a very nice details about heating value.

Is it possible to get mathematical steps for calculation of high or low heating value?

Could anybody provide the mathematical steps for calculation of high or low heating value?

How can I find the LHV(lower heating value) in the frui? e.g: pineapple

I need the name of good test book on the heating value.

Are you sure about the metric temp and pressue. Usually metric standard cubic meter is defined in 0 (zero) celicius and 101,325 kPa i.e. in NTP conditions. NTP conditions are different in different standards , see web page of engineering toolbox for the NTP defination in different standards.

The mathematical steps were given.

“Heating value of natural gas = Sum [ (x1) (HV1) + (x2) (HV2) + (x3) (HV3) + … ]

or Sum (xi*HV)

Where: HVn = heating value of gas component n, in BTU/SCF

xn = mole or volume fraction of gas component n.”